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Code of Ethics
of the
International Tissue Engineering Research Association (ITERA)
and the
German Center for Provement and Development of Innovative Techniques in Medicine (DZITM e.V.)

Recognizing that DZITM and ITERA seeks to exemplify and develop the finest standards in medical care , development and research, I hereby pledge myself, as a condition of membership, to live in strict adherence with its principles and regulations.

Adopted by the 3rd General Assembly of the World Medical Association, London, England, October 1949 and amended by the 22nd World Medical Assembly Sydney, Australia, August 1968 and the 35th World Medical Assembly Venice, Italy, October 1983 and the WMA General Assembly, Pilanesberg, South Africa, October 2006 and the Code of Ethics of the American Urological Association, Inc.we constantly improved this Code of Ethics.

Regarding the different fields we define distinct duties of physicians

  • in general
  • in relations to governmental and non governmental organizations
  • in research
  • to patients
  • to colleagues

Duties of physicians in general
A physician shall:

always exercise his/her independent professional judgment and
maintain the highest standards of professional conduct.

respect a competent patient’s right to accept or refuse treatment.

not allow his/her judgment to be influenced by personal profit or
inadequate discrimination.

be dedicated in providing competent medical service in
professional and moral independence, with compassion and respect to
human dignity.

deal honestly with patients and colleagues, and report to the
appropriate authorities those physicians who practice unethically or
incompetent or who are involved in fraud or deception.

not receive any financial benefits or other incentives solely for
refering patients or prescribing specific products.

respect the rights and preferences of patients, colleagues, and other
health professionals.

recognize his/her important role in educating the public but should
be cautious in divulging discoveries or new techniques or therapies
through non-professional channels.

certify only that which he/she has personally verified.

strive to use health care resources in the best way to the benefit of patients
and their community.

seek appropriate care if he/she suffers from mental or physical illness.

not follow economic or other enforced decisions that withstand medical ethics and shall report such behaviour to authorities

respect the local and national codes of ethics that are in concordance.

report financial and other conflicts of interest, that could influence his/her approach and decisions in medical, scientific, and educational duties (or actions).

Duties of physicians in relation to governmental and non governmental organizations
A physician:

shall demand that economic and legal decisions concerning the medical field are always performed in accordance to the international code of medical ethics

shall not be guided in his judgement by profit aspiration of other parties or oganisations

with organisation structures influencing directly or indirectly medical actions shall be in accordance with the International Code of medical ethics

Duties of physicians in research
A physician shall:

shall use new technologies or methods only to the best for her/his patients and only after sufficient examination. Fraud and deception shall be reported to authorities.

Duties of physicians to patients
A physician shall:

always bear in mind the obligation to respect human life.

act in the patient’s best interest when providing medical care.

owe his/her patients complete loyalty and all the scientific resources
available to him/her. Whenever an examination or treatment is beyond the
physician’s capacity, he/she should consult with or refer to another
physician who has the necessary ability.

respect a patient’s right to confidentiality. It is ethical to disclose
confidential information when the patient consents to it or when there is a
real and imminent threat of harm to the patient or to others and this threat
can be only removed by a breach of confidentiality.

give emergency care as a humanitarian duty unless he/she is assured that
others are willing and able to give such care.

in situations when he/she is acting for a third party, ensure that the patient
has full knowledge of that situation.

not enter into a sexual relationship with his/her current patient or into any
other abusive or exploitative relationship.

Duties of physicians to colleagues
A physician shall:

behave towards colleagues as he/she would have them behave towards

NOT undermine the patient-physician relationship of colleagues in order to
attract patients.

when medically necessary, communicate with colleagues who are involved
in the care of the same patient. This communication should respect patient
confidentiality and be confined to necessary information.

I believe my responsibilities to the community and to society are part of a physicians code and that a physician must safeguard the public. I will work constantly to improve this Code of Ethics and will full fill this code with live. Hopefully this Code of Ethics will serve as a frame work for evaluating and deciding on these emerging issues.

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